Harry Cresswell

Loops for Logic

This is Part 5 of my notes on Gordon Zhu’s Practical JavaScript. In this part we changed the structure of an array from a text value to an object, modify a method to work with a text property and learn about Booleans.

Building a todo app v.5.0 #

Using for loops and if else statements.

Understanding the for loop #

The for loop allows you to repeat a certain amount of code, any number of times. For example, if you wanted to tell a computer in english to say “hey” 3 times, this is how you might do it in 3 steps:

i = 0
Say "hey" if i < 3
Increase i by 1

So whats going on here?

• Keep track of variable called i, which is zero first
• say “hey” if i is less than 3
• After that, increase i by 1

This might result in the following:

0 "hey"
1 "hey"
2 "hey"
3

Whats going on here? #

• “hey” because zero is less than 3
• Then it would increase i by 1, and return 1 followed by “hey”, because 1 is still less than 3
• Then i would increase again by 1 and return 2, followed by “hey”, as 2 is still less than 3
• When i is increased by 1 and the value is 3, the computer stops returning “hey”, as i is no longer less than 3, it’s now equal to 3

In Javascript these steps have specific names #

In Javascript, the 3 steps outlined above have specific names.

i = 0                  // Initialization
Say "hey" if i < 3     // Condition
Increase i by 1        // Final-expression

The first step is the Initialization, this is essentially a variable we create to keep track of how many times we want to do something. In this case we use zero to keep track of how many times we want to print “hey”.

The second step is known as the Condition. For example, if this is true, then keep going, otherwise stop. In the code above, the condition is “if i is less than 3”.

The third step is the Final Expression, this is what happens after each round. So after saying “hey” the first time, we’ll increase i by 1, after we increase i the second time, increase i by 1 and so on.

Structuring in code #

We can use the for loop to make this work in code:

for (initialization; condition; final expression) {
console.log("hey");
}

With our steps from before, this looks something like:

for (var i = 0; i < 3; i = i + 1) {
console.log("hey");
}

As it’s a common occurrence in Javascript, we can shorthand the final expression to i++, meaning i = i + 1.

for (var i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
console.log("hey");
}

Looping over Arrays #

Carrying on with the example from the last video, instead of printing “hey”, with console.log, we can actually just console.log our variable. In this case, i:

for (var i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
console.log(i);
}

Now our code will return the following:

0
1
2

Next, let’s create a new array:

var testArray = ['item 1', 'item 2', 'item 3']

Remember, you can access specific items in an array using the square brackets:

testArray, for the first item, testArray for the second, and so on. We can use this inside our for loop.

for (var i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
console.log(testArray[i]);
}

By console logging our testArray with i as the parameter, we can loop through the 3 items in the array:

item 1
item 2
item 3

The problem now is that using 3 in our for loop condition will only return the first 3 items.

It would be better to make the condition dynamic and return as many items as are in our array. We can do this with the .length property. Length will tell us how many items are in the array.

for (var i = 0; i < testArray.length; i++) {
console.log(testArray[i]);
}

Now if we add an item to testArray, so there’s 4 items in the array, it will be returned. If we kept using 3 as the condition, the fourth item wouldn’t be returned.

For example, add a new item with testArray.push('extra item');. Then run the original code and extra item will not be returned.

However run the updated code with testArray.length instead of the value 3 and length will check the number of items then return those items.

item 1
item 2
item 3
extra item

Now, our code will work with testArray no matter how many items are in the array.

Requirements #

Version 5 will put into practice what we’ve learnt about for loops to fix our displayTodos method and make it a lot better.

• .displayTodos should show .todoText
• .displayTodos should tell you if .todos is empty
• .displayTodos should show .completed

Step 1: displayTodods should show .todoText #

The first requirement is that our displayTodos todos method should show the todoText property on each object in the todos array.

As we have to do some processing on each object in the array, we can use the for loop, as we want to repeat some code for every item in the array.

Adding the for loop to our code #

We can write the structure the for loop inside the displayTodos method, as we learnt before:

displayTodos: function() {
console.log('My Todos', this.todos);
for (initialization; condition; final-expression) {
}
}

This time, instead of using testArray which doesn’t make much sense now, we can use our todos array.

displayTodos: function() {
console.log('My Todos', this.todos);
for (var i = 0; i < this.todos.length; i++) {
}
}

Making the for loop work #

Say for example, this.todos has 3 items, in that case, the first time i = 0, the second i = 1, the third i = 2, then it will stop as i will equal 3 and the condition is no longer true. 3 is not less than 3 so the loop will end.

displayTodos: function() {
console.log('My Todos', this.todos);
for (var i = 0; i < this.todos.length; i++) {
// this.todos.length has 3 items
// i = 0
// i = 1
// i = 2
}
}

We can use the values of i to access specific items in the array. Remember, when you have an array you can get to a specific item using brackets, like this this.todo[].

We can use i as the value inside the brackets to loop through the items.

displayTodos: function() {
console.log('My Todos', this.todos);
for (var i = 0; i < this.todos.length; i++) {
// this.todos.length has 3 items
// i = 0
// i = 1
// i = 2
this.todos[i];
}
}

In our app we want to access the todoText property, which we can do using dot notation:

this.todos[i].todoText

By putting our code inside a console.log statement, we can display the items on the console:

displayTodos: function() {
console.log('My Todos', this.todos);
for (var i = 0; i < this.todos.length; i++) {
// this.todos.length has 3 items
// i = 0
// i = 1
// i = 2
console.log(this.todos[i].todoText);
}
}

Finally we can remove this.todos from the first console.log statement, as this prints out objects to the console, which isn’t particularly useful.

Our final code (with comments removed) will look like this:

displayTodos: function() {
console.log('My Todos:');
for (var i = 0; i < this.todos.length; i++) {
console.log(this.todos[i].todoText);
}
}

Before moving on, try adding a couple of todo items to see how these new changes work.

This will return:

My Todos:
first
second

Step 2: displayTodos should tell you if .todos is empty #

Next we want displayTodos to tell us if the todos array is empty.

We can do this by adding some logic using an if else statement. This might work something like this:

// if there are no todos
// console.log('Your todo list is empty!');
// else
// print todos as normal

We can make this more specific:

// if there are no todos
// if this.todos.length is equal to 0
// console.log('Your todo list is empty!');
// else
// print todos as normal

And more specific still:

// if there are no todos
// if this.todos.length is equal to 0
// if this.todos.length === 0
// console.log('Your todo list is empty!');
// else
// print todos as normal

Notice we’re using triple equals (===). This is the strictest form of comparison in Javascript. It’s the most consistent way of comparing values and the recommended way. You’ll sometimes see double equals (==) but it’s not that consistent so avoid using it for now.

Translating this logic into Javascript #

We can use the if keyword and then test a condition:

if (condition) {
// run code here if the statement is true
}

For our purposes, that would look like this:

if (this.todos.length === 0) {
console.log('Your todo list is empty!');
}

Then we can add the else statement if the condition is false:

if (this.todos.length === 0) {
console.log('Your todo list is empty!');
}  else {
// print todos as normal
}

For our else statement we can use the code we wrote in step 1:

if (this.todos.length === 0) {
console.log('Your todo list is empty!');
}  else {
console.log('My Todos:');
for (var i = 0; i < this.todos.length; i++) {
console.log(this.todos[i].todoText);
}
}

So now our displayTodos method should look like this:

displayTodos : function() {
if (this.todos.length === 0) {
console.log('Your todo list is empty!');
}  else {
console.log('My Todos:');
for (var i = 0; i < this.todos.length; i++) {
console.log(this.todos[i].todoText);
}
}
}

Testing our work in the console #

Next, head to the console to test everything is working correctly.

todoList.displayTodos(); should now return Your todo list is empty!

Try adding a new todo, todoList.addTodo('an item') will return:

My Todos:
an item

Next, delete the todo with todoList.deleteTodo(0); to return Your todo list is empty! once again.

Understanding the code #

By adding some logic to our program we can check to see if this case is true, then run some code, otherwise run this code. with can do this with an if statement. The if statement uses the keyword if followed by a condition.

In our case, we’re using if to check to see if this.todos.length is equal to 0, which will be the case if there are no items in our todo list. If the case is true we will run the code Your todo list is empty!.  If the length is not 0, we will print our todos as normal. We can achieve this with the else statement using the for loop we wrote in Step 1.

More on if statements and else #

You can use if without else:

if (condition) {
// code that runs if condition is true
}

But with else it looks like this:

if (condition) {
// code that runs if condition is true
} else {
// code that runs if condition is false
}

You can have as many if statements as you like.

Step 3: displayTodos should show .completed #

The final requirement for v5 is for displayTodos to show whether a todo has been completed or not.

We could represent that like this:

( ) item 1
(x) item 2
( ) item 3

Where a parentheses containing an x; (x) represents a complete todo item and an empty parentheses; ( ) represents a todo which is incomplete.

We can do this inside our for loop:

for (var i = 0; i < this.todos.length; i++) {
console.log(this.todos[i].todoText);
// check if .completed is true
// print with (x)
// else
// print with ( )
}

Translating this to Javascript #

We can translate our notes into JavaScript like this:

for (var i = 0; i < this.todos.length; i++) {
console.log(this.todos[i].todoText);
// check if .completed is true
if (this.todos[i].completed === true) {
// print with (x)
} else {
// print with ( )
}
}

In the first part we check if this.todos.

Using i, we can look at the specific todo in this iteration of the loop.

Then, we check the completed property, to see if it’s true. We can use the triple equals to do this.

Representing complete and incomplete todos #

Lastly we need to print out the todo text for the specific object, with an (x) if completed is true and ( ) when completed is false.

for (var i = 0; i < this.todos.length; i++) {
if (this.todos[i].completed === true) {
console.log('(x)', this.todos[i].todoText);
} else {
console.log('( )', this.todos[i].todoText);
}
}

To do this we can console.log(this.todos[i].todotext), just like we did at the top of the for loop.

We’ll just need to add the string values before hand. (x) for the first instance and the empty parenthesises; ( ), in the else statement.

Now we can get rid of console.log(this.todos[i].todotext) at the top of the for loop as we’re now doing this work inside the if else statement.

Testing our work in the console #

Now we can add a few todos.

You should see these print out with an empty parenthesises as none of them have been completed.

My Todos:
( ) first
( ) second
( ) third

Now we can use toggleCompleted to see if we can change some of our todo items to complex.

To toggle our second todo we can use:

todoList.toggleCompleted(1);

Which will return:

My Todos:
( ) first
(x) second
( ) third

We can toggle it again by repeating the same step.

todoList.toggleCompleted(1); will now return:

My Todos:
( ) first
( ) second
( ) third

Interesting observations #

This step combined for loops with if else statements.

For each for loop we used logic to check if todo.completed is true – in which case we do one thing – or if it’s false, in which case we do something else.

v.5.0 Review #

.displayTodos now shows todoText and not just the objects like before. It also tells us if our todo list is empty with a helpful message. And whether or not a todo has been completed.

We wrote all our code in this version inside one method, displayTodos.

We combined for loops with if statements, so we can use logic in our program.

Next Steps #

Head over to Watchandcode.com to take the course that these notes are based on.